Your kidneys are bean – shaped organs that perform many important functions. They’re in charge of filtering blood, removing waste through urine, producing hormones, balancing minerals, and maintaining fluid balance. T here are many risk factors for kidney disease. The most common are uncontrolled diabetes and high blood pressure. Alcoholism, heart disease, hepatitis C virus, an d HIV infection are also causes. When the kidneys become damaged and are unable to function properly, fluid can build up in the body and waste can accumulate in the blood. However, avoiding or limiting certain foods in your diet may help decrease the accumulation of waste products in the blood, improve kidney function, and prevent further damage.
Diet and kidney disease
Dietary restrictions vary depending on the stage of kidney disease. For instance, people who are in the early stages of chronic kidney disease will have different dietary restrictions than those with end – stage renal disease, or kidney failure. Those with end – stage renal disease who require dialysis will also have varying dietary restrictions. Dialysis is a type of treatment that removes extra water and filters waste. The majority of those with late – or end – stage kidney disease will need to follow a kidney – friendly diet to avoid the buildup of certain chemicals or nutrients in the blood. In those with chronic kidney disease, the kidneys cannot adequately remove excess sodium, potassium, or phosphorus. As a result, they’re at higher risk of elevated blood levels of these minerals. A kidney – friendly diet , or renal diet, usually involves limiting sodium a nd potassium to 2,000 mg per day and limiting phosphorus to 800 – 1,000 mg per day. Damaged kidneys may also have trouble filtering the waste products of protein metabolism. Therefore, individuals with chronic kidney disease in stages 1 – 4 may need to limit t he amount of protein in their diets . However, those with end – stage renal disease undergoing dialysis have an increased protein requirement . Here are 5 foods that you should likely avoid on a renal diet.
1. Dark – colored soda In addition to the calories an d sugar that sodas provide, they harbor additives that contain phosphorus, especially dark – colored sodas. Many food and beverage manufacturers add phosphorus during processing to enhance flavor, prolong shelf life, and prevent discoloration. Your body absorbs this added phosphorus to a greater extent than natural, animal – , or plant – based phosphorus . Unlike natural phosphorus, phosphorus in the form of additives is not bound to protein. Rather, it’s found in the form of salt and highly absorbable by the intestinal tract . Additive phosphorus can typically be found in a product’s ingredient list. However, food manufacturers are not required to list the exact amount of additive phosphorus on the food label. While additive phosphorus content varies depending on the type of soda, most dark – colored sodas are believed to contain 50 – 100 mg in a 200 – mL serving . As a result, sodas , especially those that are dark, should be avoided on a renal diet.
Dark – colored sodas should be avoided on a renal diet, as they contain phosphorus in its additive form, which is highly absorbable by the human body.
Avocados are often touted for their many nutritious qualities, including their heart – healthy fats, fiber, and antioxidants. While avocados are usually a healthy addition to the diet, individuals with kidney disease may need to avoid them. This is because avocados are a very rich source of potassium. One cup (150 grams) of avocado provides a whopping 727 mg of potassium . That’s double the amount of potassium than a medium banana provides. Therefore, avocados, including guacamole, should be avoided on a renal diet, especially if you have been told to watch your potassium intake.
SUMMARY Avocados should be avoided on a renal diet due to their high potassium content. One cup of avocado provides nearly 37% of the 2,000 – mg potassium restriction.
3. Canned foods
Canned foods , such as soups, vegetables, and beans, are often purchased because of their l ow cost and convenience. However, most canned foods contain high amounts of sodium, as salt is added as a preservative to increase its shelf life . Due to the amount of sodium found in canned goods, it’s often recommended that people with kidney disease avoid or limit their consumption. Choosing lower sodium varieties or those labeled “no salt added” is typically best. Additionally, draining and rinsing canned foods, such as canned beans and tuna, can decrease the sodium content by 33 – 80%, depending on the product SUMMARY Canned foods are often high in sodium. Avoiding, limiting, or buying low sodium varieties is likely best to reduce your overall sodium consumption.
4. Whole wheat bread
Choosing the right bread can be confusing for individuals with kidney disease. Often for healthy individuals, whole wheat bread is usually recommended over refined, white flour bread. Whole wheat bread may be a more nutritious choice, mostly due to its higher fiber content. However, white bread is usually recommended over whole wheat varieties for individuals with kidney disease. This is because of its phosphorus and potassium content. The more bran and whole grains in the bread, the higher the phosphorus and potassium contents. For example, a 1 – ounce (30 – gram) serving of whole wheat bread contains about 57 mg of phosphorus and 69 mg of potassium. In comparison, white bread contains only 28 mg of both phosphorus and potassium Note that most bread and bread products, regardless of whether they’re white or whole wheat, also contain relatively high amounts of sodium It’s best to compare the nutrition labels of various types of bread, choose a lower sodium option, if possible, and monitor your portion sizes.
White bread is typically recommended over whole wheat bread on a renal diet due to its lower phosphorus and potassium levels. All bread contains sodium, so it’s best to compare food labels and choose a lower sodium variety.
Bananas are known for their high potassium content. While they’re naturally low in sodium, 1 medium banana provides 422 mg of potassium . It may be difficult to keep your daily potassium intake to 2,000 mg if a banana is a daily staple. Unfortunately, many other tropical fruits have high potassium contents as well. However, pineapples contain substantially less potassium than other tropical fruits and can be a more suitable, yet tasty, alternative .
Bananas are a rich source of potassium and may need to be limited on a renal die t. Pineapple is a kidney – friendly fruit, as it contains much less potassium than certain other tropical fruits.
Dairy products are rich in various vitamins and nutrients. They’re also a natural source of phosphorus and potassium and a good source of protein. For example, 1 cup (240 mL) of whole milk provides 222 mg of phosphorus and 349 mg of potassium ( 18 ). Yet, consuming too much dairy, in conjunction with other phosphorus – rich foods, can be detrimental to bone health in those with kidney disease. This may sound surprising, as milk and dairy are often recommended for strong bones and muscle health. However, when the kidneys are damaged, too much phosphorus consumption can cause a buildup of phosphorus in the blood, which can pull calcium from your bones. This can make bones thin and weak over time and increase the risk of bone breakage or fracture . Dairy products are also high in protein. One cup (240 mL) of whole milk provides about 8 grams of protein . It may be important to limit dairy intake to avoid the build up of protein waste in the blood. Dairy alternatives like unenriched rice milk and almond milk are much lower in potassium, phosphorus, and protein than cow’s milk, making them a good substitute for milk while on a renal diet.
Dairy products contain high amounts of phosphorus, potassium, and protein and should be limited on a renal diet. Despite milk’s high calcium content, its phosphorus content may weaken bones in those with kidney disease.